GLOSSARY

Karate Uniform (Gi)  

Obi : Belt

Uwagi :Top half of Gi

Zubon :Bottom half of Gi

Training Equipment

Chi ishi: Lever weighted stone

Ishi sashi: Stone padlocks

Kongo ken : Iron ring 

Makiwara : Striking board

Nigiri game : Gripping jars

Tan : Barbells

Numbers

Ichi: One

Ni: Two 

San: Three

Shi: Four

Go: Five

Roku: Six

Shichi: Seven

Hachi: Eight

Ku: Nine

Ju: Ten

Black Belt Grades

Shodan: 1st Dan 

Nidan: 2nd Dan 

Sandan: 3rd Dan

Yondan: 4th Dan

Godan: 5th Dan

Rokudan: 6th Dan

Nanadan: 7th Dan

Hachidan: 8th Dan

Sparring (Kumite) 

Ippon kumite: 

one step sparring (block and counter)

​San dan gi: Basic three step sparring

Randori kumite: 

Slow and soft free style sparring with emphasis on technique

Yakusoku kumite: Prearranged sparring

​Iri kumite: Hard, fast but controlled continuous free style sparring

​Go kumite: Full contact sparring

Parts of the body (Tai)

Ashinoyubi: Toes (Tsumasaki)

Danchin: Sternum

Ganchu: Below the nipples

Gansei: Eyeballs

Hiza: Knee

Jinchu: Region below the nose 

Kinteki: Testicles

Kindama: Groin 

Kote: Wrist

Miken: Bridge of nose

Mimi: Ears

Mikazuki: Jaw 

Nodo: Throat

Onaka: Stomach 

Seiken: Fist

Shuko: Back of hand

Suige tsu: Solar-plexus 

Ude: Forearm

Yubi: Fingers

Punches (tsuki or zuki)

Jodan tsuki: Punch to the face

Chudan tsuki: Punch to the chest

Gedan tsuki: Punch to the groin

Age tsuki: Rising punch

Choku tsuki: Straight punch

Furi tsuki: Circular punch

Gyaku tsuki: Reverse punch

Kizame tsuki: Jab Punch

Oi tsuki: Lunge punch

Seiken tsuki: Forefist punch

Shotei tsuki: Palm heel thrust

Ura tsuki: Close range punch

Blocks(Uke)

Jodan uke: Upper level block

Age uke: Rising block

Chudan uke: Middle level block

Gedan harai-uke: Lower level sweep

Jodan uke: Upper level block

Hiji uke: Elbow block

Hiki uke: Pulling/grasping block

Hiza uke: Knee block

Kaisho uke: Open hand block 

Ko uke: Wrist block

Shotei barai: Palm heel sweep

Shotei uke: Palm heel block

Soto uke: Forearm block (block from outside moving inward to the centre line of the body)

​Sukui uke: Scooping block

Tora guchi uke: Tiger mouth block (sometimes called Mawashi Uke meaning ‘round block'

Strikes (Uchi)

Uraken uchi: Back fist strike

Empi uchi: Elbow strike (hiji)

Haito uchi: Ridge hand strike

Hiraken uchi: Fore knuckle fist strike

Ko uchi: Wrist strike

Nukite uchi: Spear hand strike

Shuto uchi: Knife-edge hand strike

Sokuto uchi: Knife-edge foot strike

Teisho uchi: 

Palm heel strike

(sometimes called shotei uchi)

​Tetsui uchi: Bottom fist strike

Kicking (Geri)

Mae geri: Front kick

Mawashi geri: Roundhouse kick

Yoko geri: Side kick

Ushiro geri: Back kick

Hiza geri: Knee kick

Kensetsu geri: Stamping kick, joint kick

Mae ashi geri: Front leg kick

Tobi geri: Jumping kick

Stances (Dachi)

Benzoku dachi: 

One foot crossed over diagonally

in front of the other, prior to turning

​Hachiji dachi: 

Natural stance

Han zenkutsu dachi: forward stance

Heiko dachi: Parallel stance

Heiko sanchin dachi: Parallel stance, one foot distance apart 

Heisoku dachi: 

Formal attention stance, feet together

Kokutsu dachi: Back stance

Musubi dachi: 

Formal attention stance, feet turned out

Neko ashi dachi: Cat stance

Reinoji dachi: tick stance

Sagiashi dachi: Crane leg stance

Sanchin dachi: 

Hour glass stance

Sesan dachi: 

Side facing straddle stance

Shiko dachi: Box stance

Zenkutsu dachi: 

Forward leg stance

General Terms 

Ashi barai: Foot sweep

Budo: Martial Way; Martial arts

Bunkai: Study of kata applications and techniques

Chudan: Middle level

Dan: Level

Do: Way; Path

Dojo: Training place

Dojo kun: Dojo rules

Gasshuku: Karate training camp

Gedan: Lower level

Geri: KIck

Gi: Dojo uniform (Do-gi)

Go: Hard, unyielding

Go kumite: Hard sparring

Goju-Ryu Karate Do: Hard/Soft style, empty handed way

Hai: Yes

Hajime: Begin

Hara: Stomach

Heishugata: ‘Closed Fist’ kata (Sanchin and Tensho)

Hidari: Left

Hiji: Elbow

Hiza: Knee

Hojo undo: Supplementary exercises

Honbu dojo: Head dojo of an organisation

Ippon kumite: One step (prearranged) sparring

Jodan: Upper level

Ju: Soft, flexible

Junbi undo: Warm up exercises

Kaishugata: ‘Open fist’ kata (Gekisai, Saifa, etc.)

Kakie: Push hands

Kamae: Combative posture

Kamae te: Assume stance

Kanji: Chinese characters

Karate: Empty hand 

Karate-do: The way of karate

Kata: Forms

Keage: Snap action

Ken: Fist

Ki o tsuke: Attention (phonetically ‘kee-ut-ski’)

Kiai: Focusing shout

Kihon: Basic techniques

Kokomi: Thrust action

Koshi: Ball of the foot (or Josokutei)

Kumite: Sparring

Mae: Front

Mawatte: Turn around

Migi: Right

Mokuso: 

Silent contemplation, meditation

Morote: Double / both hands 

Muchimi: Heavy, sticky action

Obi: Training uniform belt

Osae: Pushing

Otagai: Training partner

Oyo bunkai: Study of techniques in kata (similar to Bunkai but including follow-up techniques not shown in kata)

Randori: Free sparring, relaxed sparring (sometimes called jiyu kumite)

Rei: Bow

Sandan gi: Three level sparring

Seiken: Fore fist

Seiza: Formal sitting position (kneeling on your haunches, feet crossed)

Semete: Attacking partner

Shime: Sanchin testing

Shomen: The front

Shugo: LIne up

Soto: Outwards

Suri ashi: Sliding step

Tai: Body

Tai sabaki: Moving the body to avoid contact

Tanden: The body´s power centre

Te: Hand

Tsuki: Punch

Uchi: Strike

Ude: Forearm

Ude tanren: Forearm conditioning 

Uke: Block

Uke harai: Blocking exercises

Ura: Behind

Uraken: Back fist

Ushiro: Back, rear

Wakari masu ka?: Do you understand?

Wakari masu: I understand

Wakari masen: I don't understand

Waza: Techniques

Yakusoku kumite: Pre-arranged sparring

Yame: Stop

Yoi: Ready

Yoko: Side

Zanshin: Awareness